Strategy for Change


Most of the scientific literature about culture in Sub Sahara African countries have been produced by researchers outside the region.


Global development it is a seriously complicated issue. International investment as well.

HR&S has developed the practical strategies required to address global development combined with international investment in a manner that generate evidence based impact. HR&S aims to be aware of all of the issues to take informed decisions and act in an efficient and effective manner. This is our statement: Empower local research, innovation and social entrepreneurs.


  1. Help as a mode of operation is biased, and also suffer from volatility.
  2. The charity, help, aid sector is rich, but not efficient nor transparent enough. It is not even sure that all activities genuinly strive to for example improve the livelihood for the under-served population.
  3. Volunteer work or associations, whether they are national or international do not seem to be profesional enough to implement SDG programmes. That is not surprisingly, as the UN also did not manage.
  4. Still many want to be involved, in their own small capacity, maybe by donating monthly or do volunteer work, HR&S proposes volunteer driven crowd-funding platforms that are linked to professional operations in the underserved communities. This is preferably a not-for profit department of a professional social enterprise.The mode of operation must be respectful to all stakeholders, the receivers, the partners and the givers. HR&S is operation in partnership with Action10 for this purpose, and we raise money to be given out as business loans to local entrepreneurs and business managers, as well as reimbursement to local coaches.


The HR&S ambitions is to empower development institutions to implement strong  capacity strengthening procedures and testing evidence for impact.
We also target solid transparency and accountability structures.
The HR&S ambitions is also to address the intrinsic outcome challenges presented by development stakeholders in SSA. Compile information about SSA by and from local stakeholders.

Outcome Challenges

  • The “help-me” mindset.
  • Fragile transparency and accountability between donors and receivers.

The Ten Principles of the UN Global Compact

The HR&S and HR&S supported social entrepreneurs agree with the Ten Principles of the UN Global Compact claiming that corporate sustainability starts with a company’s value system and a principles-based approach to doing business. This means operating in ways that, at a minimum, meet fundamental responsibilities in the areas of human rights, labour, environment and anti-corruption. Responsible businesses enact the same values and principles wherever they have a
presence, and know that good practices in one area do not offset harm in another. By incorporating the Ten Principles of the UN Global Compact into strategies, policies and procedures, and establishing a culture ofintegrity, companies are not only upholding their basic responsibilitiesto people and planet, but also setting the stage for long-term success.

CSR: HR&S offers the HR&S ToolKit add value to CSR programmes.
Agreed Suppliers: HR&S offers the HR&S ToolKit add value to Agreed Suppliers that offers products to the HR&S Target partners.

Some of the challenges with Aid:

  1. Help as a mode of operation is biased, and also suffer from volatility.
  2. The
    charity, help, aid sector is rich, but not efficient nor transparent
    enough. It is not even sure that all activities genuinly strive to for
    example improve the livelihood for the under-served population.
  3. Volunteer
    work or associations, whether they are national or international do not
    seem to be profesional enough to implement SDG programmes. That is not
    surprisingly, as the UN also did not manage.
  4. Still many want to
    be involved, in their own small capacity, maybe by donating monthly or
    do volunteer work, HR&S proposes volunteer driven crowd-funding
    platforms that are linked to professional operations in the underserved
    communities. This is preferably a not-for profit department of a
    professional social enterprise.The mode of operation must be respectful
    to all stakeholders, the receivers, the partners and the givers.
    HR&S is operation in partnership with Action10 for this purpose, and
    we raise money to be given out as business loans to local entrepreneurs
    and business managers, as well as reimbursement to local coaches.

The HR&S ambitions is to address the intrinsic outcome challenges
presented by development stakeholders in SSA. Compile information about
SSA by and from local stakeholders.

Activity 1

ActionTalks to compile cross-cultural data. RISE team-leaders discuss between themselves and with others different topics related to Global development.

Activity 2

Needs, user driven, professional and sustainable solutions

  1. The solution to empower any country in the world  lies in its own scientific research, innovation and enterprising.
  2. Local businesses are to be initiated and managed by local stakeholders.
  3. The funds to run research, innovation and enterprising is generated through own income.
    If social problems are to be tackled successfully, institutions seeking to solve them need sustainable revenues to be able to be innovative and to grow, thus the institution itself must generate funds to cover the running costs. An intervention may require a start-up capital, but shall never depend on external funding for sustainability.
  4. The business sector has sustainability and long term planning. It aims to be a win-win between the business managers, employees and customers. Social businesses balances financial sustainability with social good.

Activity 3

HR&S Practical strategies for change

  1. R&S takes on a coordinating role addressing the topics above.
    HR&S operates as a professional for-profit social enterprise, with local offices in SSA.
  2. HR&S Sweden may be seen as an opportunity by some, why all our local operations is managed by our country offices.


HR&S has developed practical strategies and our services is training events and coordination between stakeholders. We sell training and coordination addressing research management, laboratory management, social enterprising and global development through our local office to local stakeholders.

We also sell training and coordination on global development & international investment through our office in Sweden stakeholders outside Africa.

Global development & International investment

  1. The power of local solutions; research innovation and social business
  2.  Scaling social business
  3. Accountability
  4. Cross-cultural understanding

Value-proposition by HR&S

  1. Tools, partners & customers
  2. Managing aid partners
  3. Fair fundraising
  4. Implementing change



Progress markers




Needs & user driven local solutions

Needs & User driven

According to HR&S, a needs & user driven programme is a programme that meets a need defined by the person or persons who are expected to benefit from the change, who according to the HR&S approach also will be the implementer of the activities in actual practice and who will make the programme sustainable long-term.

Thus, a needs driven programme builds on the ambitions of the implementer and is defined as a set of activities identified, designed, implemented and maintained by one or more local stakeholders. If the intervention is needs driven actually, then the customer can be expected to be willing to pay for products and services delivered, thus the intervention will eventually have a sustainable economy.  Needs & user driven is No ONE among the HR&S ” value platform Ten Actions”

The power of local research, innovation & social enterprising

Although researchers, innovators, and entrepreneurs in lower-income countries present amazing ideas, their solutions are often unrecognised and unsupported.  Consequently, locally developed and locally adapted solutions are not implemented and local enterprises, that would address the needs of the local people, are not powerful.

As a consequence, these societies lack access to locally relevant scientific findings and innovations, products, services, and employment opportunities that would otherwise have improved people’s lives. HR&S claims that people in lower-income countries will work their way out of poverty if they are given the opportunities.

Sustainable economy

If social problems are to be tackled successfully, institutions seeking to solve them need sustainable revenues to be able to be innovative and to grow, thus the institution itself must generate funds to cover the running costs. An intervention may require a start-up capital, but shall never depend on external funding for sustainability.

Social Enterprise – Business model

Our business model presents our plan for generating income to cover the costs for running the programme and thus making it sustainable. It identifies the products and services that we will sell, the target market we have identified, and the expenses we anticipate. We think through a set of overarching questions, our business model, and outline them before we dive in to the details of our business plan research. Our Business Model Canvas is a strategic visual chart with elements describing value proposition, infrastructure, customers, and finances it covers: 1. Customer segments, 2. Value propositions, 3. Distribution channels, 4. Customer relationships, 5. Revenue model, 6. Key Activities, 7. Key Resources, 8. Key Partnerships, 9. Cost Structure.

Empowering social businesses

The potential of social enterprising in Sub-Sahara African countries

Traditional actors have not been able to close the delivery gap to the poor (Navarette Moreno and Agapitova, 2017). Public and non-public providers face large challenges in improving service levels and uptake. As a result, the public sector struggles to meet service demand in low-income communities in terms of delivery and quality. Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) try to fill these gaps, but can only reach as far as grant funding and sponsorships allow, which limits the scale of services. The formal business sector provides many services but often prioritizes delivery to high- and middle-income populations (Navarette Moreno and Agapitova, 2017). Reaching low-income population is difficult and often unattractive, given difficult-to-access markets, lack of existing infrastructures, high risks, and low-profit margins. As a result, low-income population often rely on informal providers or, simply, lack service options.

Social Enterprises (SEs) in Africa already address service delivery gaps for the poor (Navarette Moreno and Agapitova, 2017). Although positive examples abound, SEs have not yet fully realized their potential in Sub-Saharan Africa (Navarette Moreno and Agapitova, 2017). Indeed, Africa is one of the most vibrant and dynamic regional markets for social enterprises.

While effective in reaching the poor, SEs face significant obstacles in growing their activities to a scale where they can substantially contribute to the achievement of development impact. Many SEs struggle to scale-up and develop sustainable business models. SEs face high barriers that are often aggravated by the difficult markets they serve. Common challenges include: i) unconducive regulation and policy, ii) lack of financing solutions, iii) weak infrastructure and human capital, and iv) lack of information and networks (Navarette Moreno and Agapitova, 2017).

Support by the SDG programme

Therefore, a key question of development programmes, research and policy is how best to identify and remove these obstacles. SEs often fall between traditionally recognized public and private organizations, and the public sector often does not play a catalytic role, in terms of taking steps to help develop or partner with the SE sector (Navarette Moreno and Agapitova, 2017). Looking toward 2030, achieving the SDGs for the poorest populations will be costly and cannot be done solely by the public sector—SEs can be partners in achieving the SDGs. Development practitioners will need innovative solutions and supportive environments that will allow these SE innovations to scale and accelerate results.


Rosa et al. (2006) examined the relationship between the state of necessity and entrepreneurial activity, through qualitative case studies from Uganda and Sri Lanka, and the survey of 1006 Ugandan adults. Questions are posed on the tenability of the hypothesis that necessity is a primary motive for a business start-up in poor countries.

The relationship between necessity and business start-up, though significant, was found to be in the opposite direction from that predicted by the “necessity hypothesis”. Those with low incomes were much less likely to start a business because they often became “trapped” by having to work long hours for just enough income to survive. Opportunistic diversification, however, flourished once resources improved. The results question recent attempts to classify countries on the basis of distinctive forms of entrepreneurship based on necessity and opportunity.

Empowering a market

The renewal of markets, industries and societies is driven and developed through competing innovative ideas and initiatives from companies, scientific researchers, innovators and entrepreneurs.

Challenges for entrepreneurs The development takes place under uncertainty about what will succeed, and only a few will be successful. The uncertainty and risks that entrepreneurs, researchers, innovators and start-ups take by daring to test new technologies, business models and products/services in new innovative ways constitute important engines in the renewal of markets, industries and societies. Even if the projects would not lead to the results hoped for, the individuals’ lessons are valuable as these individuals often start new innovative projects. HR&S aims to contribute to a more experimental local economy in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).

HR&S support

HR&S provides support to young or small, innovative and gender-equal companies that, with the help of our coaching and business loans, validate, verify and develop their business and the solution the business is based on. The goal is to create conditions for companies to develop their operations in phases where other support and financing is difficult to obtain.

In the short term, we contribute to:
• Increased ability of young companies in SSA to build a business by interacting with the market, verifying and validating offers and business models
• Increased awareness among young companies to work with sustainability and gender equality as competitive factors in their business.

In the long term, we want to contribute to:
• More companies that have developed their business acumen, grow and are profitable in national and international competition
• More companies whose innovation contributes to creating value for the customer, the society and the environment
• Sustainable and equal entrepreneurship that strengthens SSA’s competitiveness through innovations that contribute to the sustainability.


Favouring my own people

Mungiu-Pippidi (2017a) claims that corruption is a default governance order, as people tend to favour their own, be it family, clan, race or ethnic group, and that treating the rest of the world fairly, seems to be a matter of extensive social evolution and sufficient resources. Mungiu-Pippidi (2017 b) argues further that the most countries today are corrupt rather than non-corrupt and that we should understand corruption as a social practice or institution, not just as a sum of individual corrupt acts. The author continues that in a development perspective, countries whose governance is presently based on norms like ethical universalism (public goods distributed fairly and equitably) have a past with other norms, and that the history of clean countries shows that good governance is the product of evolution. Modernity is a long and frequently incomplete endeavour to build private separation and a state that is autonomous towards private groups.

Mungiu-Pippidi (2017b) claims further that treating corruption as a deviation is problematic in lower-income countries. He points out that most anti-corruption approaches are built on the concept that public integrity and ethical universalism are the default governance norms. The author claims that this approach leads to policy failure, as norm building and norm enforcement require two different approaches. The approach of treating corruption as a deviation leads to investing in norm-enforcing instruments in cases where instead norm-building instruments are required. Mungiu-Pippidi recommends to rather draw and support national long-term strategies aimed at building public integrity and ethical universalism, as well as to reduce opportunities and increase constraints for corruption.

An individual is corrupt when engaging in corrupt acts, regardless of whether the person is on the public or private side (Mungiu-Pippidi, 2017b). In one context, the corrupt agent is just a deviant and can be sanctioned by the principal if disclosed. In another case, the principal colludes with the agent, and corruption is exercised throughout a pyramidal organization that extracts resources disproportionately in favour of the most powerful group. So, anti-corruption means solving problems of power discretion and collective action.

Identifying agency for corruption control

Countries can achieve control of corruption in two ways (Mungiu-Pippidi, 2017b).  One is the surreptitious way, where open access, free competition and meritocracy (government or the holding of power by people selected according to merit) are achieved as a side effect through incremental changes of institutions, without being a main collective goal. This worked in the past for many of today’s higher-income countries. The second way is when the rule of law and control of corruption are delivered as collective goods after collective agency and investment, for instance, after sustained anti-corruption campaigns. Both paths need human agency. In the former, the role of the agency is small. It is presumed that nobody will oppose reforms that are not perceived to be posing a threat to anybody. Those reforms are just common sense, professionalism, and public demand for government performance. In the latter case, considerable efforts and alignment of both the interests favouring change and ideology of ethical universalism are needed.

Identifying human agency delivering change Identifying the human agency capable of delivering change becomes essential. Demand for good governance is increasing all over the world (Mungiu-Pippidi, 2017b). Changing governance across borders is a difficult task. Still, international partners may want to try to socialize with enlightened elites, and there are certainly opportunities to help civil society and a developing enlightened citizens’ community (Mungiu-Pippidi, 2017b). In practice, though, that is not so easily done. Corrupt governments are often treated like as enlightened elites and entrusted the ownership of anti-corruption programmes that will never take off – not only because they often are the wrong programmes, but because they really should be implemented against the main interests. Fortunately, modern smartphones with Internet access provide a great shortcut to individual autonomy and enlightened participation. Any assistance towards increasing the percentage of ‘enlightened citizens’ armed with smartphones is worthwhile (Mungiu-Pippidi, 2017b). But for the transition strategy, we need more than that. We need a careful stakeholder analysis and coalition building. As a ground rule, whoever is competitive, stands to lose in a particularistic society (exclusive or special devotion to a particular interest) (Mungiu-Pippidi, 2017b). He or she faces two options: to desert particularism and move on to a more meritocratic realm (hence the close correlation between corruption and brain drain) or stay and fight. These are our recruitment grounds. It is essential to understand just who has the interest to challenge the rules of the game and who is prone to defend them, in other words – to identify the institutional status quo losers and winners. Who would remain a winner even if they open the door to the more merit-based competition? Who, among today’s losers, would gain something essential? These groups need to come together to make change happen.

Voluntary implementation of  corruption control. As we have a very close correlation between the rule of law and corruption control, the results are often clear: when corruption is high, the rule of law is below the threshold (Mungiu-Pippidi, 2017b). So, legal approaches to anti-corruption (an anti-corruption agency or a strong punitive campaign) can hardly be expected to deliver if the rule of law is weak. The same goes for civil service capacity building in countries where bureaucracy has never achieved autonomy from its rulers.  What is needed for good governance is an autonomous class of magistrates and an autonomous class of bureaucrats (Mungiu-Pippidi, 2017b). These cannot be delivered by capacity building in the absence of domestic political agency. This is why the functional accountability tools are those associated with civil society agency. Voluntary implementation of accountability tools by groups involved (businesses who lose public tenders, for instance, or journalists seeking audience) generally works better than official implementation. The latter seldom delivers.

Accountability as an HR&S brand

HR&S is remaining accountable, no matter what. Accountability as a brand. Trust worthiness is the HR&S brand.  To remain 100 % accountable in an environment that is not always 100% accountable, requires firm stategies. That EVERYTHING we say and do is true, honest and with good intention. We never side-step, no matter what.
Strategies. Our strategies build on voluntarily efforts, by our own team-members, programme management partners and customers. We empower the efforts through trainings and meetings where we emphasize on the mutual benefits, the win-win with clear and honest deals. We also always ensure there is a significant benefit for stakeholders to partner with HR&S, and we ensure close relations and frequent communication.
Facing internal challenges. Sometimes managers will let team members avoid accountability  because they dislike confrontation.  But a lack of individual accountability is bad all around. It is bad for the team members who likely know they are not performing well. For instance, a team-member will probably know if she/he did not deliver according to agreed goals.  Without the encouragement and push to improve, she/he may feel ignored, discouraged and devalued. A lack of accountability for one team member sends a message to the rest of the team that lower standards are accepted. The team may begin to resent the low-performing team-member and his or her manager because they have to shoulder more work to make up for their teammate’s deficiencies. And if the manager do not address the problem team member, the team may perceive it as favoritism or weakness, which can be demotivating for everyone.


Cross-cultural awareness

Culture is borderless

A meta-analysis of intra-national compared with international differences found greater variety within than between countries (Gerhart et al., 2005). It was argued that one important reason for this variety was to be the notion of agency—that people can and do make independent choices. Another was that culture is not invariably exclusive. Instead, people are simultaneously part of overlapping, sometimes even apparently contradictory, cultures through circumstance and choice.

World Value Survey (WVS)

An analysis of world value survey (WVS) data  asserts that there are two major dimensions of cross-cultural variation in the world (Inglehart, R and Welzel, C., 2014):

  • Traditional values versus Secular-rational values and
  • Survival values versus Self-expression values.

The global cultural map, created by the two scientists, shows how scores of societies are located on these two dimensions.
Traditional values emphasize the importance of religion, parent-child ties, deference to authority and traditional family values. People who embrace these values also reject divorce, abortion, euthanasia and suicide. These societies have high levels of national pride and a nationalistic outlook.
Secular-rational values have the opposite preferences to the traditional values. These societies place less emphasis on religion, traditional family values and authority. Divorce, abortion, euthanasia and suicide are seen as relatively acceptable. (Suicide is not necessarily more common.)
Survival values place emphasis on economic and physical security. It is linked with a relatively ethnocentric outlook and low levels of trust and tolerance.
Self-expression values give high priority to environmental protection, growing tolerance of foreigners, gays and lesbians and gender equality, and rising demands for participation in decision-making in economic and political life.

World Value Survey (WVS)
How values change over time

People’s priorities shift from traditional to secular-rational values as their sense of existential security increases. The largest increase in existential security occurs with the transition from agrarian to industrial societies. People’s priorities shift from survival to self-expression values as their sense of individual agency increases. The largest increase in individual agency occurs with the transition from industrial to knowledge societies. 

The value differences between societies around the world show a pronounced culture zone pattern. The strongest emphasis on traditional values and survival values is found in the Islamic societies of the Middle East. By contrast, the strongest emphasis on secular-rational values and self-expression values is found in the Protestant societies of Northern Europe. These culture zone differences reflect different historical pathways of how entire groups of societies entered modernity. These pathways account for people’s different senses of existential security and individual agency, which in turn account for their different emphases on secular-rational values and self-expression values.  

Generally speaking, groups whose living conditions provide people with a stronger sense of existential security and individual agency nurture a stronger emphasis on secular-rational and self-expression values. On a global scale, basic living conditions differ still much more between than within societies, and so do the experiences of existential security and individual agency that shape people’s values.


Partners & stakeholders

Agency for durable social impact

Entrepreneurs  have been defined as persons who solve pressing and insurmountable social problems, making an immense yet durable and irreversible social impact (Nowak et al., 2020). Nowak et al. (2020) claim that entrepreneurs do these remarkable things with minimal investments, having as assets their passion, commitment, big yet realistic visions for change, creativity, and entrepreneurial skills. Thus description by Nowak et al. (2020) of entrepreneurs is supported by the findings of Navarette Moreno and Agapitova (2017) that Social Enterprises (SEs) in Africa have been found capable of addressing service delivery gaps for the poor, when traditional actors have not been able to close the delivery gap. Mungiu-Pippidi (2017b) argues for coalition building and that the groups benefiting from the positive change need to come together to make change happen and reflect over whom, when and how international partners can assist along the road to a virtuous circle.

Informed by the findings of Nowak et al. (2020), Navarette Moreno and Agapitova (2017) and Mungiu-Pippidi (2017b), HR&S is seeking partnership with:
i) Scientific researchers, innovators and social entrepreneurs in Sub-Sahara African countries
   – with intrinsic motivation for social good and who are
   – benefitting from a positive change.
ii) International stakeholders willing to invest in scientific research, innovation, social enterprising and global development.

Value proposition

HR&S  Sweden HQ

Aid sector – customer segment

  • Meeting requirements of grant givers; implemented programmes
  • Webinars  in SSA; research management, laboratory management, social enterprising and global development & international investment.
  • Tailor-made webinars on Global development & international investment for specific aid insitutions.

Private sector – customer segment

  • CSR funding to implemented programmes
  • Tailor-made webinars on Global Development & International Investment for specific insitution.
  • Coordination between stakeholders; for example manufacturers and buyers of scientific equipment.


  • Shop with items from our partners
  • Seminars and webinars, tailormade
  • Events with cross cultural training


  1. Practical strategies.
  2. Registered local branches.
  3. ActionInvest


  1. Eight annual webinars, reach out to and invite ideal customers
  2. Seminars
  3. Social media posting.
  4. Direct contact with CSR providing platforms that enables funds; Alaya for Good,

HR&S Country branches

Local social entrepreneurs – customer segment

  1. Business loans
  2. Local coaching
  3. Webinars
  4. Expert advice
  5. Co-working space with IT support
  6. Other

Action10 fundraises in order to generate a capital that the local branches give out as loan.
HR&S offers annual webinars on research management, laboratory management, social enterprising, and global development
HR&S manages a platform for expert advisers.

10 % of the loans, membership fees, webinar fees, other.

Reimbursement to coaches and auditor, internet, computer, cell-phone with camera, renting a venue, bank account.

How HR&S manages
Aid partners

“If you have come to help me, you are wasting your time. If you have come because your liberation is bound up with mine, then let us work together.” These words were used by Lilla Watson, Aboriginal Elder and Activist to set out a challenge for people working towards social justice.


The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), originally proposed in 2000, provided eight targets to reduce global poverty by 2015. While progress has been made in reducing poverty around the world, studies suggests that the MDGs may not have directly contributed to global development progress.  Friedman (2013) claimed that the MDGs did not actually result in the acceleration of any global progress metrics. In 2015, the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) established a new set of goals (the Sustainable Development Goals) and called 2015 as “the year of global action.” The Sustainable Development Goals or Global Goals are a collection of 17 interlinked goals designed to be a “blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all”. The SDGs were set in 2015 by the United Nations General Assembly and are intended to be achieved by the year 2030. Companies have a central role in the work to achieve Sustainable Development Goals.

Achieving Sustainable Development Goals requires economic growth that simultaneously safeguards social and environmental sustainability. The responsibility that lies with the business community is basically about running companies in a responsible and sustainable way that takes into account social, environmental and economic factors in the company’s operations at all levels.

Aid metrics

It is widely accepted that foreign aid provided by wealthy nations during the past five decades has failed to reverse global patterns of poverty and inequality (Ovaska, 2003).

Carlos M. Palacios wrote a paper aiming to contribute to the public and academic debate on the appropriateness of young Westerners’ participation in projects of volunteer tourism conducted in developing countries (Palacios, 2010). The results illustrate that such projects can produce similar benefits to other educational initiatives of international volunteering and service (IVS) in terms of global engagement, career development, intercultural competence and psychological support. However, the author claims that these projects need to harmonize personal and institutional expectations with real volunteer capacities. Thus, until IVS programs in the university context distance themselves from a development aid discourse, they will potentially fall under the umbrella of “neo-colonialism”. The research provides a model of impact analysis and raises challenging questions for universities or similar organizations involved with short-term group placements of volunteer tourism. Palacios concluded that in the 1960s, when the boom of international volunteering for young Americans started through the Peace Corps program, it was clear that there were political and colonial-like intentions involved. However, the current literature about international volunteering and service (IVS) rarely comments on the political interests of the donor nations sponsoring IVS agencies. Instead, charges of neo-colonialism are currently placed on the volunteers themselves and the “voluntourism” industry. Thus, it is important to understand that the recent comments about colonialism, have less to do with elaborated critical theories of development, and more to do with “ineffectiveness” and practical concerns. In reality, what has been at stake in most debates about volunteer tourism is not whether the help of Westerners has any relevance in the development of poor nations, but whether these Westerners possess the necessary capacities and motivations to produce effective help. Evidence of this can be found in the conclusions of many authors when they suggest that the projects have a low impact in the local communities because the young volunteers do not have enough knowledge, reflection capacity, appropriate skills or qualifications, volunteering and international experience, time to get involved with the locals or altruistic intentions.
*Neocolonialism: the use of economic, political, cultural, or other pressures to control or influence other countries, especially former dependencies.

Donations & the expectation of the receiver

After donations have been raised, whether it is through charities or tax, and the administration costs have been removed, the money is transferred to the target country. Now the real challenge begins, the implamantation of a programme that actually honours both the donor and the receiver of the donated funds. 

60 years of enormous amounts of aid money, while still the number of extremely poor people in Africa is still increasing proves that this is a very difficult task. Thus for obvious reasons, this diffult task cannot be manages by NGOs and/or volunteer workers, but the implemetation of the poverty reducing programmes requires professionsal institutions.

Institutions with professional staff, who operated according to professional practical strategies,  The funds is ususlly not transferred to the underserved themselves, but to institutions who are serving the underserved. Institutions that can show scientific evidence for that the funds invested are actually increasing the level of livelihood among the underserved population in a sustainabel manner.

Practical strategies & professional operations. Sustainable impact requires practical strategies and professional operations. HR&S offers this service.

Professional local HR&S institutions. Thus we need professional local institutions serving the underserved. Such institutions are already implemented in high-income countries. If the institutions benefit from donations, they must honour that the funds is targeting the under-served. The donated funds must reach the poor. Such institutions cannot be managed by volunteers, nor staff without proper and advanced edcuation. The institutions must have a professions, effective and efficient set-up, like a professional business providing social good as a business idea. HR&S offers this service.

The perceptions of the receiving institutions. Now, what is the perception among the staff at the institutions receiving the donated funds. Is the receieving staff made aware of the intention of the donor, that this money shall ONLY serve the under-served, for example extremely poor communities, either directly or indirectly but only the targeted population, or, do the receiving institution staff consider themselves vulnerable enough to be entiteled to have direct benefit from the donated funds?

Thus, institutions in target countries receiving donations  CANNOT use the funds to cover their own institution’s running costs, but can only be used to cover project specific direct  implementation costs. Moreover, activities MUST generate evidence based sustainability for the social good they implement.

HR&S proposes international-national social enterprises as the sole method to eradicate extreme poverty. Local business loans and local business coaching can preferably be funded through donations.

The underlying tones of Aid

Many initiatives, programmes, and organisations dedicated to development work express a similar desire to “help” those in “need.”  Julia Kramer (2015) points out that “Help,” by definition, assumes that a person external to a situation gives, aids, saves, or rescues another. The need-help model of development is closely linked to a problematic deficit model, where we recognize those “in need” for what they lack, rather than value them for what they have. She continues that – when we say that a person or a community “needs help,” do we suggest that they are less than, and that we as “helpers” and “problem solvers” are inherently better or more capable? Perhaps we don’t consciously view ourselves in this light, but our word choices may reflect our underlying thoughts, assumptions, and motivations to engage in development work. The need-help paradigm is paternalistic and self-gratifying, and focuses the action on those who “help,” without much thought to those who receive. It assumes that those coming to “help” have the right idea, the right approach, and the right tools. 

According to Kramer (2015), by viewing development work through the “help” lens, we neglect our own stake in global development, and tend to inevitably and unintentionally perpetuate the systems of oppression and injustice we seek to break down. Instead, we have to recognize that we too are harmed by global injustice, and therefore must work with the global community toward mutual liberation. Models of “allyhood” in social justice and “accompaniment” in human rights parallel this theory. We cannot just be external visitors; we have to engage with the communities we serve and recognize how our own privileges and social behaviors impact our roles.  To move beyond good intentions, the development paradigm must shift toward collaboration, community involvement, and empowerment. Instead of “I’m here to help,” we might try: “I’m here to work with you, to leverage both of our skillsets.” We have to recognize our place in the local context of the community we seek to serve and to work with. We should not assume that our presence is wanted or even beneficial. We have to rethink the oppressive notion that the global community “needs our help” and that we are uniquely qualified and able to contribute to any sort of good. We have to stop neglecting local capacities, skills, and desires. She continues, of course, changing our vocabulary isn’t the end point, and it would be overly idealistic to think that a shift in language would immediately benefit global development efforts. However, a change in our semantics reflects and supports a change in our mentality. People living in resource-constrained areas aren’t less than, and they aren’t others. They don’t need pity, and they certainly don’t solely depend on external “aid.” 

Aid, as it stands, is not enough. If we reframe “aid” and “help” into a more empowering ideology, and thus engage in more critical reflection, we can set ourselves on a course toward a more just model of global development (Kramer, 2015). We have to be thoughtful about our involvement in global development efforts, realising that good intentions do not translate into mutually beneficial outcomes. We have to be humble about our societal roles, recognising that the world is not crying out for our help. And, finally, we have to support the continuing conversations around global progress, politics, and development, contributing to a broader movement toward collaboration.  

How HR&S manages
Charities & Crowdfunding platforms

Honouring the giver & the receiver

Still many want to be involved, also outside the traditional Aid sector, and in their own small capacity, maybe by donating monthly or do volunteer work. The mode of operation must be respectful to all stakeholders, including the receivers, the partners and the givers.

HR&S recommends volunteer driven crowd-funding platforms and other giver programmes, that are linked to professional operations in the underserved communities, so that i) fundraising administration costs are kept low and ii) the raised funds are well invested.

The HR&S approach is to have a volunteer driven not-for profit programme within our social enterprise. Our not-for-profit  programme is Action10 ( HR&S – Action10 raise money to be given out i) as business loans to local entrepreneurs, as well as ii) reimbursement to local coaches.

The expectations of a donor

When someone is donating, the expectation is usually that this money shall serve an underserved population, community or person somewhere in the world. The donor wants to achieve something with the resources offered; whether it is funds, items, work-hours or knowledge. This is also  true concerning donations generated through the tax system, governmental aid; both tax on salaries as well as tax on corporations. Now, as this was the reason for giving this money, the expectation of the donor HAS TO BE honoured. The expections of the donor has then obvioulsy to be balances with the “HR&S needs and user driven strategy”, in a manner that is respectful to both donor and the receiver. Respecting the donor and the receiver include ensuring that the funds reaches the community targeted AND that the interventions have sustainable impact.

Raising the funds

Charities.  Many studies have compiled data over the level of administration in the charity sector. Some claim it is 26-87%, other 60-70%. The administration cost includes salaries and other obvious costs that is required to run a registered and professional institution. If the charity is registered as a company, then they also pay corporate tax. The conclusion can be that it is costly to convincing people to donate to people they do not know and that this requires a lot of effort.

Running charities is a businessness idea as is creates employment. It is not a for profit business idea, but a non-profit business idea. Small charities can be expected to spend larger percentage on administration than big charities, as big institutions have a larger capital. But does this matter. Is it not the absolute amount of money that goes into the running of institutions at continents other than the underserved population, that is not at all involved with the implementation of the money. Another business idea is to offer services to charities that raise money.  The actual concequence of this is that givers provides more salaries to people that operates in other continents than the underserved population.

A challenge with raising funds can be that the institution may want to point out a need, and in order to emphasize on the need may want to show the receiever of the funds as depending on this money, maybe weak, vulnerable, sad… This may cause a stigma. It is also not clear if the GDPR is fully respected.

Governmental bodies: Also governmental bodies, that are not involved with the fundraising itself, suffers from a high level of administration costs which may be related to, among other issues, the bureaucracy generated from managing and reporting on governmental tax money, as well as responding to the political values of the ruling government.

Concusion & recommendations

Institutions raising funds must have a reasonable low level of administration cost, in order to honor the giver. HR&S proposes 0- 15%, ALL institutions, as well as company tax. The administration costs shall only cover unavoidable costs including bank fees, transfer of funds fees, and web-site fees. If 60-70% of the donors money is used only to raise the money, there is nothing left to pay for the professional implementation programmes that can ensure a sustainable solution.

Thus, just collecting donations without being able to sustainably improve peoples’ lives  CANNOT be a business idea. Ad hoc support can expect to deepen poverty as it keeps the beggers in a depending situation, which can be expected to reduce their self-esteem and lower the motivation to take own initiatives.

Funds that are just distributed without demand on accounting, auditing, accountability and transparency increases the perception that money comes and goes and is not the result of income generation. The only people who benefit is an sustanable manner from charities that focuses on fundraising and not the implementation, are the employees of the charity.

Receiving institution in target countries CANNOT use the funds to cover their own institution’s running costs but only project specific direct  implementation costs, and activities MUST generate evidence based sustainability for the social good they implement. HR&S provides the practical strategies and implementation coordination enabling a sustainable impact.

HR&S proposes international-national social enterprises as the sole method to eradicate extreme poverty. Local business loans and local business coaching can preferably be funded through donations.

A shift of paradigm
Implementing Change

Mungiu-Pippidi (2017b) argues for coalition building and that the groups benefiting from a positive change need to come together to make change happen. HR&S adds to this argument that when these coalitions have been built, then team-building and motivation must be addressed.

If we target change, then, Mungiu-Pippidi (2017b) argues, we need to have a theory for addressing why the status quo would change and who would bring the desired evolution. Mungiu-Pippidi (2017b) also claims that the main theories of change presently informing intervention are too general: modernization theory (although education and economic development have increased over the past twenty years without bringing better governance), and state modernization (the belief that by building state capacity, the integrity problems will be resolved).


If we aim to transform donor dependent collaboration to sustainable interventions, then we introduce change. HR&S benefits from its own “Strategy for Change” tool.
Agency for change. When we introduce change then we depend on persons that are driving change.
Team-building & Motivation. We address: Team member ability, Team composition, Positive team atmosphere, Team coordination, Team leadership, Reward teams as teams (not as individuals), Team training, Ensuring that teams feel accountable for the success of the whole company, Ensure that our teams have the necessary authority to succeed, Ensure a process for problem-solving.
Stakeholder analysis. Stakeholder analysis is the process of the assessing a decision’s impact on relevant parties. The stakeholders are organised into a grid with different matrices according to their interest and their power.  Power mapping provides a theoretical framework and a set of tools to tap the power needed to make things happen. Power mapping is helpful in coalition building; with whom should we develop a relationship.  
Public relations. Public relations (PR) is the practice of deliberately managing the release and spread of information between our programme and the public. We aim to convince an audience, inside and outside our usual sphere of influence, to promote our idea, purchase our product, support our position, or recognize our accomplishments. Social media can augment PR efforts and serve as an amplifier.
Institutional capacity The institutional capacity concerns the capacity of the partner institutions to manage the programme / business; governance, management and operations; transparency and accountability in ethics and governance, as well as cross-cultural understanding. Milestones: Identify milestones for the Programme activities and outputs. Our milestones are scheduling tools and define certain points in our programme schedules. These points note the start and finish of a sequence of activities, and mark the completion of a major phase of work.
Accountability management. The programme management is responsible for the local running of an “Accountability management programme”. Transparency: Ensure annual financial and programme reports. Share management meeting minutes. Arrange seminars, workshops and other events for members as well as for external stakeholders. All stakeholders are active on social media platforms. Financial reports based on a bank account statement is developed by the programme management quarterly and shared.
Cross-cultural understanding Ensure cross-cultural understanding awareness raising exercises.
Equal partnership In an equal partnership set up the partners share input, responsibility and benefits equally.

Impact – Exit strategy

Expected Impact

We define Expected Impact a programme that have become sustainable over time and does not require further backup from an external stakeholder. The Expected impact is measured at the time of closing the programme.  We may in addition aim to measure if our impact is still sustainable some period after we have closed the programme, maybe one, two, five and event ten years after. In order to be able to expect impact, we benefit from the HR&S evaluation planning practical strategy ROPE.

Real-time Outcome Planning & Evaluation (ROPE)

The Real-time Outcome Planning & Evaluation (ROPE) is a practical strategy that enables local developers to implement their solutions in collaboration with international partners. We compile and address the necessary conditions required to bring about a given impact. A new ROPE programme starts with setting a goal and developing indicators to measure results. Then we develop an implementation plan, we secure finances, staff, and infrastructure, then we ensure knowledge sharing, the accounting procedures and the cross-cultural understanding. Thereafter we make an activity plan and assign people and institutions; who will do what, how and when. Now we implement, and after we measure the results and analyse. Thereafter we complement with what did not go well until we reach the goal we set up in the beginning.

Programme design

The programme idea shall take into account what has already been implemented in relation to the programme idea, and by whom? What can be strengthened and how? Who are potential Strategic partners? There shall also be a justification for taking an initiative in the context. Do we have the institutional capacity?  Do we see an opportunity for a sustainable economy? What would be the honest motivation for the Programme management partners to take this initiative on? We present the Context and challenge addressed. Programme idea is often a narrative of the replies to the questions: i) “What do you want to do?”, ii) “How do you want to do it?”, iii) Why did you not do it already?” iv) “Which are the country and local authority regulations?”, v) “Which are the surrounding policies?”, vi) “How do you plan to reach a sustainable economy / what is the business idea?”.

Professional Ambitions

This section explains what the target partner has identified as the solution to her situation. What she wants to do and achieve right now in her life. What are the goals of the Target Partners?  It is the answer to the question “What do you want (to do)?”

Outcome challenges: Here we discuss in general the challenges that the Target partner face. This is a compilation of the reasons for why the Target Partners are not doing what they want to do to implement their ambitions. It is the answer to the question “Why did you not do it already?”.

Output & Outcome: The implementation plan of the Target partner presents what she wants to do in actual practice. What are the actual activities and steps in order to achieve her ambitions? What needs to be done in actual practice making it happen.  It is the answer to the question “How do you want to do it?”

Progress markers & Sources of Evidence

Then we identify a Progress marker for each outcome. Progress markers are measurable indicators of progress or non-progress. We compile the baseline, thus the situation prior to implementing our programme. Thereafter we identify sources of evidence for each progress marker and outcome and for the expected impact. Then we identify the statistical method chosen to measure progress together with the objects for collecting evidence and controls.

Activity plan & Input required

It is now time to develop a concrete activity plan which defines who is going to do what, when and how. The activity plan will identify the needs for input including; staff, skills, training, work hours, network, and funds.

Strategy for Change

The last step in the ROPE Design is to develop a Strategy for Change (SfC). A Strategy for Change is essentially a comprehensive description and illustration of how and why a desired change is expected to happen in a particular context.


Implement the Activity plan

The implementation of the activity plan includes for example; Evaluation planning workshops; Seeking Start-up funding, and collecting evidence.

Collect evidence

Expected outcome and impact – Compile evidence for each expected outcome and each expected impact. Unexpected outcome and impact: Identify and compile unexpected outcome. It can be positive and it can be negative – Unexpected output and outcome challenges- Identify and compile unexpected challenges.

Testing the strength of Evidence for Impact

The evaluations are made real-time and the purpose is learning lessons.

Evaluation planning & Conclusions

The lessons learned are compiled and constitutes the platform for the evaluation planning. The programme strategy is adjusted in relation to the lessons learned. When reaching the expected impact, the programme can be concluded and the previous partners become Strategic partners. A new collaboration may be initiated later. We also take it as an important responsibility to share our lessons learned.

Evidence based impact (TestE)

We design surveys and measure progress in relation to outcome and income according to the HR&S impact assessment practical strategy Testing the strength of scientific evidence for impact (TestE).

Micro data survey design

Quantitative analysis – Statistical method

Basic statistics: The basic assumption to be made is that a set of data, obtained under the same conditions, has a normal or Gaussian distribution. The primary parameters used are the mean (or average) and the standard deviation, and the main tools F-test for precision, t-Tests for bias, Linear correlation and regression and Analysis of variance (ANOVA).

Simple comparison: With randomized evaluations, the simplest method is to measure the average outcome of the targeted group and compare it to the average outcome of the control group. The difference represents the programme’s impact. To determine whether this impact is statistically significant, one can test the equality of means, using a simple t-test. One of the many benefits of randomized evaluations is that the impact can be measured without advanced statistical techniques.

Propagation of errors: The final result of a Programme is calculated from several activities (outputs) performed during the implementation and the total error in a programme is an adding-up of the sub-errors made in the various steps. The bias and precision of the whole Programme are usually relevant parameters.

Qualitative assessment – Probability methods

With qualitative assessments, and contrary to statistical methods, the quality of the evidence is not judged by the sample size (the number of observations) but rather the probability of observing certain pieces of evidence. Qualitative impact evaluation includes assessing the contribution made by a particular intervention in achieving one or more outcomes, commonly referred to as a ‘contribution claim’. TestE benefit from process tracing to assess our Strategy for Change and from contribution tracing to examine the contribution by external stakeholders. We also address Team operations, Cost- benefit, Needs driven, Equal partnership and Unexpected effects.

Study sample

i)Ensure that the person asked is representative for the group, and that we would expect the same answer if we asked someone else,
ii) reflect over if the results of our randomized evaluations is generalizable to other contexts.


Simple randomized evaluations: impact evaluations that are scientifically sound usually compares outcomes of those (individuals, communities, etc.) who participated in the programme against those who did not participate.

unsplash -trust bike


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