Please find details about the TestE method here.
Testing the strength of Evidence.


  • Sida funded Laboratory team in Kenya
  • Senexel
  • Noveleq
  • Laboratory network

Dates of zoom meetings, field visits, & PMP Reports


Research management_ Research Teams

Test_E parameters

Collected TestE parameters in meetings with PMPs and TPs
when developing and adjusting the survey manual and when performing the surveys.




  • Vision & mission
    • The establishment of the Instrumentation Center will be based on a paradigm shift from donor based to sustainable and self-sufficient research and instrumentation Center.
  • Context
    • The centre may need start up capital which will be easier to access IF the centre has firm operational and financial plans, ensuring investors that all new pieces of advanced equipment will be functional for the full expected life-time period.
    • Investors may also be more interested if their own programme will benefit from the centre.
    • The need for well-articulated  Action plan with backup/alternative routes to achieve the objectives
      • Short-term and Long-term plans shall be defined.
  • Ambition – Short term plan
    The focus is towards making the NMR Centre to be fully functional by providing NMR service and training.
    In this regards, a functioning 400 MHz machine is necessary. In this regards, there are three possibilities:
    • To commission the 400 MHz Jeol machine which is already on the ground. This requires to bringing an engineer from Jeol-Sweden. However, it was pointed out that the 400 MHz Jeol machine has been at the Department of Chemistry since 2015 without being commissioned. There is high risk that some of the electronic units may have been damaged due to exposure to dust and there is not guarantee that this machine can be functional.
    • Máté has suggested that there is a possibility of getting a Varian 400 MHz machine from Gothenburg University which can be donated to the University of Nairobi, provided we find the funding to cover the cost of transport and installation. In this plan, however the supply of liquid helium, the funding to buy when available and service and maintenance will be a challenge.
    • To purchase cryogen-free 400 MHz machine which is already in the market. Prof. Máté has already obtained a quotation for 400MHz HTS-NMR machine at the cost of EUR 429,250.00 which includes which includes Packaging and Shipping, installation (but not training and after sell service). If the funding is available, this is the best option for the East African conditions.
  • Outcome challenges
    The Nairobi Team has to list all expected outcome challenges in the establishment and running of the Center, and address each one with an activity and milestones. For example:
    • Lack of funding
    • Lack of financial plan
    • Lack of service and maintenance plans
    • Lack of technicians
    • Lack of operational plan
    • Lack of stakeholder committee
    • Lack of agreed supplier
  • Activities
    • Stakeholder committee
      • Identify members of a stakeholder committee, with members from the institution management, researchers, technicians agreed suppliers.
    • The Nairobi Team shall develop an operational plan
      • Establish clear-cut strategies in the establishment and running of the Centre.
      • To Create an independent account for Centre which could be within or without the university system depending policies.
      • the Nairobi Team shall develop a service and maintenance plan.
    • Financial plan – Towards a sustainable Economy
      We expect that a donation shall cover the costs for the first period for a new piece of equipment, maybe 2-3 years, and thereafter the the running, service and maintenance of the instrument is covered through income generated.
      • the Nairobi Team has to plan on how to generate income for covering the cost of consumables, maintenance costs etc… 
      • the Nairobi Team shall conduct customer survey to know which institutions, research groups within Eastern Africa will be interested in receiving services from the Center.
      • Prepare a detailed budget which includes initial requirement for buying instruments, running cost, hiring of two technicians.
      • Define what is required for establishing the Center in terms of donation.
      • Define what is needed for establishing the Center (start-up support).
      • Establish sustainable economy and sound financial management strategies.
    • Identification of suitable partner institutions is of paramount importance for the establishment and sustainability of the Instrumentation Center. In this regards, the following have been identified/suggested as possible  partners;
      • ISP, OPCW, IFS, RSC, DFG.
      • It was agreed that the Nairobi Team to conduct to expedite the preparation of the proposal and regularly update the ISP/Uppsala University Team.
      • To list potential donors/partners and define how the Center will also benefit them
  • Milestones – Stakeholder committee
    • (Which assignment by who and when…)
  • Input
    • To plan and organize stakeholders meeting from time to time, which includes the institution management, technicians, researchers, suppliers.
    • Learn from well-established Centers such as the Swedish NMR Center which covers the running cost of the Center through collection of revenue by providing services
    • In the initial phase, technicians and/or researchers can be trained at the Department of Chemistry, Uppsala University, courtesy of Prof Máté.
    • ISP will support with coaching on ROPE and FAST for the planning and implementation for the ambitions of the Center.
      • Prof. Oman has agreed to visit Nairobi to offer the Nairobi Team member coaching on ROPE and  FAST. Although the date on this has not been fixed, preferably it should be within 2022 calendar year.
  • Output
    In the project planning the expected outputs should be defined and should be measurable. The outputs may include the following examples:
    • Number of technicians trained on how to use, service and maintain  the instruments of the Centre.
    • Number of trained postgraduates and researchers who attended/trained in workshops.
  • Expected outcome & Progress markers
    In the project planning the expected Progress Markers should be defined and should be measurable. The Progress markers may include the following examples:
    • Number of postgraduate students benefiting from the Centre which leads to graduation.
    • Number of quality publications.
    • Number of services provided by the Centre.
    • Number of technicians managing the instrument.
    • The size of income generated through workshops.

Abiy’s first proposal

  • KENpost AbYe
    • Establishment of Instrumentation Centre at our department
      ” To equip the centre with state-of-the-art Analytical Chemistry Instruments; To provide Analytical Chemistry Services to Research Institutions, Students and Industry within Eastern Africa Region;  To use the facilities in teaching undergraduate and postgraduate students; Train researchers through regular workshops on the use and application of analytical instruments.
      • Run advanced pieces of equipment
      • Conduct NMR workshops
    • Benefit from Royal Society of Chemistry
      • Training on GC, NMR
      • Other?
    • Involve important team members
      • Professor David K. Kariuki (Chairman, Department of Chemistry)
        Professor John Onyari (Chairman, NMR Committee)
        Professor Abiy Yenesew (Member)
        Dr Alber Ndakala (Member)
        Dr Solomon Derese (Member)
        Mr Charles Mirikau (Member)
        Two technologists (to be included)

HR&S Network Technicians_ Full network

Per Team member



Assessment of PMP intrinsic motivation


Assessment of TP intrinsic motivation


  • Establish contact with the Swedish embassy

Outcome challenges

Sida supported _ All teams – team leader

Per Team leader

  • KENpost AbYe
    • Instruments are old.
      • The Console for the 400 MHz instrument should be replaced. The magnet however, can be revived.
      • LC-MS. There is a communication issue between the MS system with the computer. Until this is resolved, the machine cannot be used
    • Acquisition of new instruments
      • Funding for buying new instruments
    • Maintenance
      • Funding for running the instruments
      • Funding for service and maintenance
      • Human Resource for maintenance and routine running of instruments


Sida supported _ All teams – team leader

Per Team leader

  • KENpost AbYe
    • Establish a sustainable economy
    • Employ two technologists for routine analyses and trouble shooting

    • Association with a local supplier with track record on maintenance and after sell service.

All teams

Monthly coaching meetings with Cecilia during 2020, 2021 and 2022.


Financial plan

Sida supported _ All teams – team leader

Per Team leader

  • KENpost AbYe
    • Possible income
      1. Fees from providing services using instruments
      2. Donations from Alumni of the department of chemistry
      3. Creating partnership with organizations based on providing analytical services to researchers supported by such organizations.
        1. ISP
        2. OPCW
      4. Fees from conducting national and international workshops. We already have established partnership with the
        1. Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) through the Pan African Chemistry Network (PACN) which is hosted at the Department of Chemistry, University of Nairobi.

Business plan


Sida supported _ All teams – team leader

Per Team leader

  • KENpost AbYe
    • Institutional support by the University of Nairobi by providing infrastructure and supporting members to participate in this centre;
    • Availability of qualified personal at the Department of Chemistry, University of Nairobi
    • Available instruments which include
      • 60 MHz NMR (in working condition, one year old),
      • 400 MHz (yet to be commissioned),
      • LC-MC (Yet to be commissioned),
      • UV/VIS instrument (in working condition),
      • IR (in working condition),
      • Polarimenter (in working condition)
    • A power generator is being installed
    • Liquid nitrogen will be operational soon.
    • Available partnerships with
      • ISP (Sweden)
      • PACN/RSC (UK)
    • Long term and well-established South-North Collaborative network with researchers at 
      • Upsala University (Sweden)
      • University of Potsdam (Germany)
    • Available networks
      • national (Kenya Chemical Society)
      • regional (NAPRECA) network.


Progress markers

Sustainable Impact


The respondents are identified and presented with: names, title, telephone numbers, level of education, home location, and family status. Also GDPR consent is collected if the respondent’s agree.



  1. Individual interviews, specific and open-ended, with
    • The PMP.
    • Management team members.
    • Each loan-taker present.
    • Family members present.
  2. Focal group interviews, with
    • Management team and PMP together.
    • All loan-takers of the village, who are present,  together.
  3. Collect testimonies, from a number of persons randomly chosen.
  4. Take photos.
  5. Record videos.
  6. Record interviews.
  7. Take notes in a dedicated notebook about everything that happens.

Micro data Survey questions

Social impact


Sustainable social impact refers to reaching the social good ambitions in a sustainable manner.

Measure twice a year since the start of the programme.

Social Good _ Direct Impact

Respondent: PMP

  • Compilation of the products that we offer:
    1. Business loans;
      Number of loans, size of loans, total capital. 
    2. Other
  • Compilation of the services that we offer:
    1. Weekly visits to collect refunds, coach and address challenges.
      1. type of coaching
      2. type of challenges
    2. Other
  • Number of Target partner business owners: xxx
  • PMP business generate profit.
    • Size of profit: xxx

Respondent: Target Partners

  • Compilation of the products that our Target Partners offer to their customers: xxx
    • Number of customer per product: xxx
  • Compilation of the services that our Target Partners offer to their customers: xxx
    • Number of customers per service: xxx
  • Target partner business owners generate profit.
    • Size of profit per TP: xxx

Respondent: Customers (customer survey)

  • Are customers content with products?
  • Are customers content with services?

Social Good _ Indirect Impact

Respondent: Target Partners & families.

  • Children well-being
    Children of the women who manages HR&S small-scale businesses.
    • Number of meals per day increased.
      From one to two or three.
      • Number of children: xxx
    • Education
      Tuition fee paid and school attendance made possible.
      • Number of children: xxx
  • Women well-being
    • The status of the women in the families has improved as the contribute with income.

Respondent: Customers (customer survey)


Institutional capacity

Respondent: PMP


  • Bookkeeping of international standards; compiling all receipts and invoices, perform bank reconciliation.
  • Annual auditing.
  • Respond to management reports from the auditor.


  • Who is in charge of the bookkeeping?
  • Who is doing the auditing?
  • What do the management reports look like?
  • Can we please see the books?

Project management

  • Are the number of Target Partners included, as expected? xxx.
  • Does the target partners deliver as expected? xxx.
  • Do you have regular meetings with the management team, if so, how often? xxx.
    • Do you take notes which are  included in the annual report?xxx.

Transparency & Efficiency

  • Communication between PMP and HR&S.
    • Maybe monthly reflections from PMP on WhatsApp. xxx.
  • Information from target partners on their satisfaction, needs, expectations. xxx.
    • To be written down and shared.
  • Share notes from the local management meetings. xxx.

Annual report

Due 15 February.

Target partner services

Ensure continuous feed-back from Target Partners. Information about their satisfaction, needs, expectations, xxx. Specially ask about their views on the ethics of the programme.

TP training, coaching & team building

  1. Training sessions: xxx
  2. Coaching sessions: xxx

Financial sustainability

Sustainable economy is when income, without donations, sustainably exceeds costs.

  1. When can a sustainable economy be expected ?
  2. What is the size of the required capital?
  3. Compile sources and levels of income?
  4. Compile sources and levels of expenses?

Sustainable business mind-set

  • ?

Does the income exceed the expenses?


Survey team & visit

PMP comment: Wednesdays, market day, are the only days suitable for meeting women and following up with them.


  1. The survey team consist of: Renaud, Elisabeth, Milohum, Yawo. 
  2. The team leader is: Renaud
  3. Date of the next visit: The visits are made on Wednesdays, the market day. xxx


  1. Dates of coming visits:


  1. Location of the visits:


  1. Visit arrangements: Offer snacks to focus group discussions.
  2. Travel arrangements:
  3. Travel costs:
  4. The sources for covering travel costs are:

Survey Team Preparations

Ensure the team has access to the tools required:

  • Written copy of the survey manual.
  • Camera; photos and videos.
  • Recorder.
  • Notebooks and pens.
  • Transportation means.
  • Food and water.

Divide areas of responsibility between team-members. Ensure that  each team member is clear about and comfortable with their own assignment as well as the team assignment.

The team assignments

  1. Making individual interviews.
    • Specific questions.
    • Open ended questions.
  2. Collect data from focal group discussions.
  3. Collect testimonies.
  4. Taking photos.
  5. Record videos.
  6. Record interviews.
  7. Taking notes in a dedicated notebook about everything that happens.

Preparing for the analysis of the data

  • Control
    The control is the base-line data, macro-data and the conditions in specific villages that are selected to join the programme, prior to mentioning about the programme.
  • Randomization
    Randomization among respondents is created by not announcing the survey date, and asking everyone who are present that day.
  • Statistical assessment method
    • Quantitative: ANOVA. Thus we need as much data as possible.
    • Qualitative: Simple compilation of statements.
  • Contribution tracing. Identifying other actors in the village, what do they contribute with, how many are involved and how do they benefit. Consider to collaborate with other actors.
  • Ethics. Normal ethics plus asking the respondents about their views on ethics.

Compilation of Outcome data


Progress marker scoring


Compilation of names of respondents and GDPR consent: xxx